International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction 65 (2021) 1025202wellbeing of children in seismic hazard zones. The literature identifies schools as vital centres of support for chil-dren and their communities following a hazard event [6–8]. Resilience building and disaster recovery are facilitated through a system of pro-cesses that exist to buffer the impact of disasters, or improve circum-stances during or afterwards, including short-term responses and long-term planning [9,10]. While there is no cross-disciplinary consensus on what resilience means , the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change  defines resilience as the ability of a social sys-tem to absorb disturbances while retaining the same basic structure and ways of functioning, the capacity for self-organisation and the capacity to adapt to stress and change. Drawing on the SPHERE Handbook for humanitarian response (2018), the International Network for Education in Emergencies (INEE) Strategic Framework 2018–2023 (2018)  and the INEE Minimum Standards in Education , we propose an integrated approach to DRR and resilience-building through schools. The goal of this paper is to build on existing frameworks in the ASEAN region, particularly the ASEAN Common Framework for Comprehensive School Safety [14,112] to explicitly include the psychosocial and WASH gaps in the ACFCSS impact children’s experiences before, during and after disasters. This broadening of scope may result in better school preparedness practices and improved child and hence community resilience. This paper begins by providing a literature review exploring the psychosocial impact of disasters on the wellbeing of children and com-munities, the role of WASH in DRM and its links to psychosocial resil-ience. A review of core DRM frameworks is then presented; this section specifically considers which components should inform the revision of the ACFCSS, which is presently composed of three pillars that do not explicitly include psychosocial interventions or WASH access. Based on this review, the paper then discusses the implications of such revisions for the ACFCSS. A practical solution for moving towards a more inte-grated approach is presented by proposing an adapted version of the ACFCSS with an additional pillar. The paper concludes by exploring the implications of this additional pillar and offering recommendations for future research and applications of the adapted framework. 2. Literature review 2.1.Psychosocial impact of disasters on children and psychosocial interventions There is a significant body of knowledge demonstrating the effects of disasters on children. Common mental health problems associated with disasters are anxiety, depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD; [15,16], though there is currently no exact programme or tool for improving psychosocial or mental health preparedness regarding disasters . Studies on disaster preparedness and post-disaster re-covery often lack adequate consideration of psychological wellbeing and its impact as these domains are often oversimplified (or entirely omitted) in DRM frameworks . Thus, there is a need to design and establish a plan to help communities prepare and cope with emotional issues when facing disaster events ; see also . Though some research has explored mental distress in children and youth in relation to disaster recovery (e.g. Refs. [20–22], little is known about the long-term mental health impacts of disasters . This section considers the psy-chosocial and mental health impact of disasters on children, where ‘psychosocial wellbeing’ refers to the connection between individual psychological aspects (thoughts, emotions and behaviours) and collec-tive social aspects (relationships, traditions and culture) that are central to positive human functioning but which are often disrupted by trau-matic events . Recent empirical studies emphasise the need for psychosocial sup-port in disaster recovery and preparedness strategies. Murphy et al.  found a large proportion of survivors from eight humanitarian in-terventions identified mental health as an essential component of indi-vidual and collective resilience, and reported psychosocial support as the most valued component of disaster response in a quarter of the sites. Post-disaster studies report that unmitigated psychological disturbances can cause severe consequences in the daily lives of children, especially as children facing disasters often experience extreme changes in their mood, behaviour, development, memory and decision-making [2,16]. Disasters also have the potential to exacerbate existing or underlying mental health issues across the family unit, which can accentuate the vulnerability of children and introduce potential for neglect . The literature documents specific examples of the problems this can cause in hazard-affected communities, such as increases in domestic violence post-disaster . The use of psychosocial interventions for children experiencing trauma in this context has been examined in several studies. Two recent meta-analyses by Brown et al.  and Newman et al.  found that mental health interventions were significantly more effective than nat-ural recovery in minimising PTSD symptoms, and identified a series of variables that may moderate the effectiveness of the interventions: in-dividual vs group, intervention setting, providers’ level of training, parental involvement, age and length of therapy. These reviews emphasise the need for the intervention to occur as soon as possible after the disaster to protect children’s psychosocial wellbeing. They also emphasise that informal, group-based interventions are as effective as formalised approaches (e.g., Cognitive Behaviour Therapy, Eye Move-ment Desensitization and Reprocessing), which is important to note as resources are often scarce post-disaster, and group interventions can be facilitated with several children at once by a single, trained individual (see Ref. . List of frequent acronyms and abbreviations AADMERASEAN Agreement on Disaster Management and Emergency Response (Guide) ACFCSS ASEAN Common Framework for Comprehensive School Safety (Framework) ASEAN Association of Southeast Asian Nations BBB Build Back Better (Framework/Guide) CSS Comprehensive School Safety (Framework) DRM Disaster Risk Management DRR Disaster Risk Reduction GADRRRESGlobal Alliance for Disaster Risk Reduction and Resilience in the Education Sector GFDRR Global Facility for Disaster Reduction and Recovery GPSS Global Program for Safer Schools (Framework) INEE International Network for Education in Emergencies INEE MS INEE Minimum Standards in Education (Framework) PTSD Post-traumatic stress disorder SDG(s) Sustainable Development Goal(s) WASH Water, Sanitation and Hygiene WISS Worldwide Initiative for Safer Schools (Framework) Other Acronyms and Abbreviations CBT Cognitive-behavioural therapy CBTS Community-Based Total Sanitation EDMR Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing JMP Joint Monitoring Program JSPADM III ASEAN-UN Joint Strategic Plan of Action on Disaster Management (Guide) KIDNET Narrative exposure therapy for children E.-M. Pacheco et al.